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Buckthorn Poisonous Invasive Plant

Buckthorn Poisonous Invasive Plant

Common buckthorn, (Rhamnus cathartica) is a wild-growing deciduous shrub that produces small berries that resemble blueberries. Buckthorn berries are poisonous to both humans and animals, plus it’s an invasive plant. Buckthorn Poisonous Invasive Plant.

The plant is native to Europe and is sometimes called European Buckthorn, European Waythorn, and Hart’s Thorn. Whatever name you know the shrub by, make note not to forage for the berries.

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Appearance

Buckthorn Wild Poisonous and Invasive Plant

Buckthorn grows into a large shrub or small tree that can reach 20-feet tall when mature. The shrub will have a 3-5 foot spread with multiple branches and bark that easily flakes off. A nick in the flaky bark will reveal orange inner tissue.

The shrub develops small, oval leaves that are dull green with a lighter green underside, and the leaf edges are serrated. Each branch will have small thorns at the end and thorns may also be found at the junction of branches throughout the shrub.

Blooms appear in late spring at the same time the leaves are emerging. Flowers will have 4 petals that will be yellow or green in color. The blooms are fragrant but not much to look at.

Clusters of small green berries appear in the shrub after the flowers fade. As the berries ripen they turn from green to blue, then to purplish-black when fully ripe. Each small berry contains four seeds.

Wild Growing Locations

Common buckthorn is an understory plant and thrives along the edge of woods and waterways. It’s a hardy plant that develops into dense thickets and chokes out other native-growing plants.

The shrub is not picky about soil or light conditions and is able to grow almost anywhere. The long branches of the shrub and dense leaf covering that last well into fall produce so much shade that surrounding green plants quickly die from lack of sunlight.

Do Not Eat

Common buckthorn berries ripen they turn from green to blue, then to purplish-black when fully ripe.

Buckthorn berries look attractive on the shrub when they’re ripe but don’t eat them. In addition to being very low in nutrition and bitter, they also act as a strong laxative. The laxative impact is so strong that small birds and animals will die from the effect. Severe abdominal discomfort and dehydration will occur in humans if eaten.

Even the leaves of the shrub have a negative impact on the soil when they fall from the plant and decompose. The leaves are very high in nitrogen and provide a boost of energy for the shrub to develop more top growth. The increased nitrogen also promotes the fast growth of the hardier species of native weeds that survive around the shrub.

Uses

Under certain circumstances, the common buckthorn is useful. In barren areas where erosion control is needed this fast-growing shrub will provide a formidable windbreak and hold soil in place.

Buckthorn will survive in sandy, rocky, clay, or damp soil. It will also live in shady areas, in cold or hot climates. Salty sea air near the coastline or low oxygen levels on high mountains will not stop this invasive shrub from growing. As with any plant, the better the growing conditions the better it will grow, however, bad growing conditions will not stop this plant.

If you have a landscape area, like a rocky cliff or other steep terrain that needs erosion control, buckthorn may be helpful. The shrub does not attract bears, deer, or other wildlife, and in some situations that may be beneficial.

How To Get Rid Of Buckthorn

More people want to know how to get rid of the invasive shrub rather than how to grow it.  Removal is time-consuming and must be done meticulously to prevent the shrub from re-growing.

Small samplings can be pulled out of the soil by the roots and disposed of. The older shrubs that produce berries will need to be removed from the soil, along with all roots, and burned. If the shrubs are not burned and berries are on the uprooted buckthorn, there’s a possibility that birds will come by grab one in their mouth and drop it nearby. Buckthorns are so hardy and adaptable that all it takes is one dropped berry to start a new thicket.

After removal and burning, revisit the area several times to check for newly sprouted seedlings. Since each berry contains four seeds and shrub roots run deep, there’s always a chance that a few seeds escaped the flames or a root got left in the ground. Either occurrence will be the start of a new buckthorn thicket.

If multiple seedlings sprout in an area that has been cleared, mowing the seedlings down is often an effective removal method. Several mowings over the course of a summer may be needed to completely eradicate a buckthorn thicket.

Large stumps can be killed with chemical treatments instead of remmvong them from t he ground. However, if chemicals are used they will remain in the soil and render the soil unfit for growing any vegetations for the following 3-5 years.

Notes Of Interest

* Buckthorn has relatively no pest problems and no predators. The shrub can grow and spread undisturbed by any type of animal due to its poisonous nature.

* A few bird species will eat the buckthorn berries during winter when no other food source is available. Each berry contains four seeds so the invasive shrub is soon re-seeded in various locations through bird droppings.

* Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to five years.

Buckthorn is a problem

  • Out-competes native plants for nutrients, light, and moisture
  • Degrades wildlife habitat
  • Threatens the future of forests, wetlands, prairies, and other natural habitats
  • Contributes to erosion by shading out other plants that grow on the forest floor
  • Serves as host to other pests, such as crown rust fungus and soybean aphid
  • Forms an impenetrable layer of vegetation
  • Lacks “natural controls” like insects or disease that would curb its growth

Buckthorn Poisonous Invasive Plant

USDA Plant database

Poison hemlock Identification

Poison hemlock Identification

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General

Poison hemlock is a biennial plant – it typically has a two year life cycle. First year plants are low-growing and may resemble carrots. They can be distinguished by the lack of hairs on the stems along with purple-reddish blotches. Second year plants may stretch over 10 feet tall.

Poison hemlock was brought to the United States from Europe as a garden plant. It took a bit less than a few centuries for this noxious plant to populate the North American continent. Just another case of poor thoughts and dire consequences.

Common Names

poison parsley, spotted corobane, carrot fern, devil’s bread and devil’s porridge

Description

Poison hemlock stems are hollow and hairless. They are green with reddish or purple spots and streaks.

The triangular leaves are green and look like fern leaves. They are toothed on edges and have a strong musty odor when crushed.

Flowers grow on second year plants. They have 5 petals that are tiny and white – approximately 2 to 3 inches across. They are arranged in small, umbrella-shaped clusters on ends of branched stems – much like Queen Anne’s lace. Flowers are followed by green ridged seed cases that turn brown as the seeds mature.

Range and Habitat

As the map shows, poison-hemlock grows throughout the United States.

It likes sunlight and grows along fence lines, in irrigation ditches, and in other moist waste places.

Poison Parts

Poison hemlock range map across North America

Poison hemlock is acutely toxic to people and animals, with symptoms appearing 20 minutes to three hours after ingestion. All parts of the plant are poisonous and even the dead canes remain toxic for up to three years. Eating the plant is the main danger, but it is also toxic to the skin and respiratory system.

The seeds and roots are toxic. Roots of poison-hemlock are poisonous and may be mistaken for wild parsnips.

Poison Effects

The typical symptoms for humans include dilation of the pupils, dizziness, and trembling followed by slowing of the heartbeat, paralysis of the central nervous system, muscle paralysis, and death due to respiratory failure

Toxic Look-alikes

Poison hemlock Flowers grow on second year plants. They have 5 petals

Water hemlock stems may have purple spots, but leaves are not lacy. Highly toxic to humans and livestock.

Giant hogweed, which can cause severe blistering and swelling when the sap contacts human or animal skin, stems may have purple spots, but its leaves are not lacy.

Queen Anne’s Lace has lacy leaves, but stem has hairs and does not have purple blotches.

Wild parsnip does not have purple spots on the stem. Wild parsnip can cause severe blistering and swelling when the sap contacts human or animal skin.

Interesting Facts

Socrates is the most famous victim of hemlock poisoning

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USDA plant guide

White Baneberry Facts and Information

White Baneberry Facts and Information

General Information

White baneberry (Actaea pachypoda), also known as dolls eyes white cohosh, white-beads, white beads and toadroot is a native wildflower to the western hemisphere. It is a perennial member of the buttercup family growing in eastern North America. The plant flowers from May to June with white berries following that ripen over the summer. The berries will stay on the plant until frost. Many people use white baneberry in landscaping taking the plant from woodlands. In many cases this is illegal and in several states such as New York and Florida, the actions have led to the plant being listed as exploitably vulnerable and endangered respectively. Taking seeds and planting them in domestic landscape may take two years to germinate and adversely affect the natural environment. If you find white baneberry interesting and wish to include it in your landscaping, please contact a stocking nursery – if they do not have in stock, they can special order.

Description

White baneberry grows to about 18 inches to 2 feet tall and can spread from 2 feet to 3 feet wide. Its leThe roots and berries of white baneberry are the most poisonous parts of baneberryaves are toothed at the edges and are also compound. They are roughly 16 inches long and 12 inches wide. The leaves grow alternately on the stem – this means one leaf comes out at a time on the stem.

The flowers are small – maybe ¼ to ½ inch and are colored white and grow on the end of a stalk. As referenced earlier, the flowers bloom from May to June. The picture of the white baneberry flower comes from USDA plant database.

What is so interesting about this plant are the berries and the way they sit on the plant. They look almost alien. One of its nicknames, dolls eyes is spot on. The berries are not really that big, ½ inch or so in diameter, all white with a black stigma scar.

Habitat

White baneberry thrive in moist, fertile soil with lots of organic white baneberry range mapmatter in partial to full shade. White baneberry is an upland plant and almost never occurs in wetlands. The picture of the plant with berries was taken in the Southern Adirondacks in a deciduous forest border facing south above a small lake.

Range A range map indicates, white baneberry grows North into Ontario Canada and east to Nova Scotia. It grows as far south as Florida and west out to Louisiana and Oklahoma.

Edible

Although I have read that certain birds dowhite baneberry leaves are toothed at the edges and are also compound eat the berries, the entire plant, just like Climbing Nightshade, is poisonous including the leaves, stalk, and especially the berries. If eaten, symptoms include nausea, vomiting, cramps, mouth blisters, confusion, and headache. The plant’s poison also has cardiogenic properties and can cause cardiac arrest (heart attack) in in children and immune compromised adults. This is a plant best admired for its beauty and left alone.