Poison Sumac Information

Poison sumac only grows in very wet areas.

Poison Sumac

General:Poison sumac only grows in very wet areas.

Poison sumac – Toxicodendron Vernix, grows in swamps, bogs, depressions, and other wet areas. Like both poison ivy and poison oak, poison sumac produces urushiol, a clear liquid compound found within the sap of the plant that causes an itching rash in most people who touch it.
Poison sumac basically manifests itself as a woody shrub or small tree. Unlike both poison ivy and poison oak, poison sumac is not an overly common plant.

Identification:

Poison sumac is a woody shrub or a small, slender tree that measures 5′-20′ tall. The leaves are pinnately compound (meaning – the leaflets grow from several places along the stalk) and alternate along the stem. The plant is deciduous so the leaves fall in the autumn turning brilliant orange to red in color. Each leaf stem contains 7 to 15 leaflets that are usually 2″ to 4″ long and 1″ to 2″ wide, and elliptic

Distinguish poison sumac shrubs from their harmless namesakes and consider the latter for great fall foliage

to oblong in outline. The lower leaf surface is lighter green and the edges are smooth (not toothed). The central leaf stalk is typically reddish colored.

New stems are smooth and reddish, but they gradually turn tan to light gray with age. These light-colored leafless stems can look deceptively like other non-toxic shrubs or trees during the winter. Small greenish flowers are followed by white berries similar to poison ivy.

Location:

As can be seen in the map, poison sumac is found in most of the eastern United States, between Texas and Florida in the south, to Minnesota and Quebec in the north. Poison sumac is generally found in wet soil. The picture above was taken at the University of Michigan – Nichols Arboretum in Ann Arbor, MI. It was on the side of a hill in very wet soil.

Poison:poison sumac distribution is primarily in eastern North America

Urushiol binds to the skin on contact, where it causes severe itching that often develops into a red rash or flesh colored bumps and blistering. The rash can be treated with Calamine lotion or other over the counter remedies such as oatmeal baths and baking soda. In severe cases hospitalization may be required or if the plant has been ingested.

Urushiol oil can remain active for several years, so handling dead leaves or vines can cause a reaction. In addition, oil transferred from the plant to other objects (such as pet fur) can cause the rash if it comes into contact with the skin.

The fluids released by scratching the blisters do not spread the poison or the rash. The fluid in the blisters is produced by the body and it is not by urushiol.

Climbing Nightshade Information and Description

Climbing_nightshade_leaf

Climbing Nightshade

 

General:Bittersweet is a semi-woody herbaceous perennial vine, which scrambles over other plants, capable of reaching a height of 12 feet

Climbing nightshade (woody nightshade) is native to Europe and Asia and now is widely distributed in North America where it is an invasive plant. Once established it is a problem to remove. It is a double problem since it can grow from both seeds and roots. Although poisonous to livestock, pets and humans I have seen birds eat the ripe berries. The plant has a very distinct order (rather unique and putrid) when cut. Once you smell it you will never forget it. Climbing nightshade is also known as bittersweet, bittersweet nightshade, bitter nightshade, blue bindweed, Amara Dulcis, climbing nightshade, fellenwort, felonwood, poisonberry, poisonflower, scarlet berry, snakeberry, trailing bittersweet, trailing nightshade, violet bloom, or woody nightshade

Climbing nightshade is a relatively important in the diet of some species of birdsDescription:

The plant is a slender climbing or trailing perennial reaching 12 feet in length. Leaves are alternate, ovate, simple or deeply lobed, 1-1/2 to 4 inches long, and pointed at the tip. Flowers are deep purple or bluish purple with flower stalk arising between the leaf nodes or opposite the leaves. Nearly round fruits turn red when mature and stay on the vines through mid winter.

Location:

As the map indicates, climbing nightshade is very common throughout much of North America. Climbing nightshade has a very wide range of habitats, from woodlands to scrubland, hedges and marshes. It is common in suburban areas where it can be found climbing up fences or hedges especially in shaded areas. This grows on my property where pines shade a fence and within a hemlock hedge. The only way I know to organically remove climbing nightshade is to pull the plan and roots. For several years you will need to catch the growth quickly before there are berries.

Poison:Climbing nightshade is widely distributed throughout North America

The plant, especially in its green immature fruits, contains steroidal alkaloids, which have caused poisoning in cattle and sheep. 1
Symptoms may include: Vomiting, diarrhea – common and drowsiness. 2

1 http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.info?p_psn=55&p_type=all&p_sci=comm
2 http://www.aspca.org/Pet-care/poison-control/Plants/climbing-nightshade.aspx

 

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Plantain – Plantago

Plantain: The Miracle Plant You Can Find in Your Yard

Plantain

Common names: ribwort plantain, English plantain, buckhorn plantain, narrowleaf plantain, ribleaf and lamb’s tongue, dooryard plantain, Plantain: The Miracle Plant You Can Find in Your Yardcommon plantain, Englishman’s foot, White Man’s Foot

It is just one of those damned weeds that you fight with every year – that is of course if you care about your lawn. Plantain, a perennial, is a very common “weed” that can be found just about anywhere. Just like so many other plants, Colonists brought it over from Europe with them. So, it is in my opinion an invasive species. Native Americans gave plantain two of its “common names” – Englishman’s foot and White Man’s Foot.

Description:

Leaves spiral on a very short, weakly woody stem. Leaves are broadly lance shaped to egg shaped, hairless or sparsely short haired. Roughly 2″ to 7″ long, leaves have five to seven prominent parallel veins from the base. Roots are fibrous and shallow. Broadleaf plantain can be distinguished from buckhorn plantain, Plantago lanceolata, by its broader leaf and longer flower head spikes.
The leafless flower stalks grow in summer into fall. They will reach approximately 6″ to 18″ tall. As the picture illustrates, the flower stalks grow out of the center of the plant. The flower stalks bear densely packed greenish white flowers each of which will form a seedpod containing 10 to 18 seeds.

Habitat:

Plantain grows in varied habitats. They can grow in moist soil, shade or full sun, poor soil in between sidewalk cracks – take your pick.

Location:

As the map demonstrates, plantain grows throughout Canada and the Coninental U.S.

Edible:

The very young leaves can be added to salads, or cooked as greens. The immature flower stalks may be eaten raw or cooked. The seeds have a nutty flavor and may be parched and added to a variety of foods or ground into flour.

Notes of Interest:

Plantain is very high in beta carotene (A) and calcium. It also provides ascorbic acid (C).

The plant provides food for butterfly caterpillars, rabbits, deer, and grouse. A wide variety of birds eat the seeds.

According to WebMD: Fibers from broccoli and plantain plants may block a key stage in the development of Crohn’s disease…read more

 

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Jerusalem artichoke – Helianthus Tuberosus

Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke

Common Names: sunroot, sunchoke, earth apple or topinambour, Canadian potato, sunflower root, wild sunflowerJerusalem artichoke

Driving around in upstate New York in late summer you can spot Jerusalem artichoke growing just off the road. Take a walk near old farms and just off the path you can spot small plots of these native plants growing. This edible plant is actually a species of sunflower native to eastern North America – however due to its food value (and probably its flower) it has been introduced worldwide. Just another example of man bringing a new plant to an area to become an “invasive species”. The root system of this wild food is fibrous with thin cord-like rhizomes that can grow as long as 50 inches. Usually apparent at the tips of rhizomes are whitish to pinkish tubers that are irregular in size and shape and resemble a slender potato with knots.

Description:

The Jerusalem artichoke is a tall perennial plant. It can grow up to 10’ in height. Its stems are strong upright in growth. They have “hairs” along the stem. The leaves are opposite or in whorls of three on the bottom and alternately arranged near the top. The top of the leaves are covered with short hairs and are 4 to 10 inches long and 1 1/2 to 5 inches wide broadest at the base and tapering at the tip. All leaves have toothed margins. The flowers are bright yellow as can be seen in the picture. The flower head is a rounded central disc approximately 1 ½” to 2” wide which has approximately 10 – 20 – 1 ½” to 2 ½” flowers rays attached. Each plant will have several flowers on small stems.

Habitat:

You can find Jerusalem artichokes in damp or rich thickets, waste areas, old fields, along roadsides and even in peoples gardens – either as a known vegetable or just a nice yellow flower.

Location:

You can find clusters of these wild flowers growing from southern Saskatchewan south into Kansas and eastward into Quebec down to Georgia. Frankly since many people have attempted to grow jerusalem artichoke as a food source, you can find this plant growing where ever conditions are right – again “invasive”

Edible:

The tuber is the edible part of this plant. If you wait until after a frost the inulin in the tubers will start turning to sugar thus making it sweeter. You can prepare the tuber just as you would a potato – roast, bake, boil, eat it raw, dry and grind into a flour. It is extremely versatile.

“Jerusalem artichokes get their sweetness from a unique sugar called inulin, which the body metabolizes much more slowly than it does other sugars. This makes the veggie a preferred food for diabetics, and for anyone who wants to avoid eating simple sugars and starches. Jerusalem artichokes are rich in iron, potassium and a range of B vitamins.” 2

Notes of Interest:

Jerusalem artichokes were cultivated by the Native Americans, in fact Samuel de Champlain found domestically grown plants at Cape Cod in 1605.

Truly a plant of many uses, the jerusalem artichoke can be grown for: human consumption, alcohol production, fructose production and livestock feed.

“Dehydrated and ground tubers can be stored for long periods without protein and sugar deterioration. Tubers can be prepared in ways similar to potatoes. In addition, they can be eaten raw, or made into flour, or pickled.” 1

A 25-square-foot planting can produce more than 100 pounds of harvested tubers. 2
The sugars from one acre of Jerusalem artichoke can produce 500 gallons of alcohol, which is about double the amount produced by either corn or sugarbeet. 3

1. Alternative Field Crops Manual – University of Wisconsin
2. Mother Earth News
3. Ohio State University – Ohio Perennial and Biennial Weed Guide

 

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Staghorn Sumac – Rhus Typhina

staghorn sumac

Staghorn Sumac

staghorn sumac

Driving around during September in New York you will eventually come across a group of small trees growing in dense stands. The leaves will be a deep red and large conical red hairy fruits called drupes may be at the end of branches. This is the common Staghorn Sumac which is a deciduous shrub to small tree. It grows quite aggressively. Because staghorn sumac can grow by its roots (rhizomes), and once established it can be a pain to remove.

Description:

Staghorn Sumac grows 10’ – 35’ tall. As can be seen in the picture, the leaves are alternate & compound growing approximately 24” long with 10 – 32 serrate leaflets. Each leaf grows to 12” long. The leaf stalks and the stems are densely covered in rust-colored hairs. Mature trunks are smooth and hairless. Interestingly, only female plants produce flowers and berries. The red berries grow at the end of branches. The plant flowers from May to July and fruit, the drupes, ripen from June to September. As can be seen in the pictures, they grow in upright bunches. Each cluster of drupes may contain 100 to 700 seeds

Habitat:

Staghorn sumac grows in gardens, lawns, the edges of forests, and wasteland. It can grow under a wide array of conditions, but is most often found in open areas which are not already established by other trees.

staghorn sumac branches can have tiny hairsLocation:

Staghorn sumac is found throughout the eastern half of the United States and Canada from western Ontario, south to Oklahoma into the Gulf Coast States and eastward to all the Atlantic States and eastern Canada.

Edible:

The fruit of sumacs can be collected, soaked and washed in cold water, strained, sweetened and made into a lemonade-like drink.

Notes of Interest:

Staghorn sumac spreads by seeds, and by its roots, rhizomes, to form “stands”.

The staghorn sumac derives its name from the countless tiny hairs covering its branches and resembling the tines of a deer’s antler when in velvet.

All parts of the staghorn sumac, except the roots, can be used as a natural dye.

Native Americans used the berries from staghorn sumac to make a drink.

The berries and bark are an important source of food for birds (upland games birds as well as song birds) and small mammals.

Staghorn sumac can form with either male or female plants.

 

Blackberry Information

Blackberry fruit is sweet and tastes great but may be seedy

BLACKBERRY

Blackberry fruit is sweet and tastes great but may be seedy
– Rubus procerus / ROSACEAE Rose family

Other Common Names for Blackberry:

R. procerus: Himalaya Blackberry, raspberry, blackcap

Description:

Blackberry can be a Shrub or bush-like perennial, can have trailing or climbing canes (most usual), thorned or smooth (usually domestic varieties). Blackberry leaves are simple and lobed to compound. Blackberry fruit is a berry generally in multiple drupelets. R. procerus: Bushy, large, dense clusters; stems stout, multiple, arching, thorned, up to 10 m long. As can be seen in the picture, blackberry leaves are divided into 3 or 5 leaflets, sharply toothed, 1.5-3.5 cm. Typically the fruit is black when mature. The flowers of blackberry generally are small and white. Bees are always active during flowering. Once flower petals drop fruit begins to develop. Unripe fruit looks segmented and like small examples of ripe fruit only white in color.

Location:

Blackberries are found throughout North America, generally in uncultivated and burn areas. Their habitat is extremely varied. Many times along roads or on the edge of border areas. This is one of my favorite wild fruits to pick while out on hiking or fishing trips.

Blackberry canes many times have sharp thornsSeason: Blooms in spring and early summer; fruit late summer and autumn. On of the earlier thorned stems to leaf out in the spring.

Edible:

Young shoots in spring; berries ripen in late summer and autumn. The fruit can be very seedy so be careful.

Preparation:

The young shoots can be cut just above the ground, peeled and eaten raw or cooked. Beginning in late summer the berries of most species are available. The berry can be eaten raw, boiled down to a syrup, squeezed for juice, cooked with stews or made into preserves, pies, and even wine. Leaves can be dried and used to make a tea substitute.

Growing your Own:

Blackberry plants are fairly easy to grow. I have gone from “stealing” Blackberry leaves are generally in threes and are serratedwild cane to buying from a garden center. My experience is that domestic varieties are juicy and sweet while wild blackberry is sweet but rather seedy. The only wild blackberry I ever really liked as much as a quality domestic were the blackberries in the Pacific Northwest – Oregon and Washington. Anyway, I would suggest buying your plants from a quality supplier like Burpee. The blackberry should be planted late fall or early spring with room to grow and in a place where ‘pretty’ isn’t super important. The plants will spread through shallow runners. You will need to control the spread by planting in a raised bed or by routinely digging them out.

After harvesting your crop, it would be smart to treat the plants  with a preventative general purpose fungicide. It should help to prolong the life of your patch.

Other maintenance is cutting old canes (big brown) or dead canes back after fruiting.

Notes of Interest:

Noted for its sweet delicious taste. The berries and root have medicinal properties useful for treating diarrhea. Blackberries and strawberries are very high in ellagic acid which is an antioxidant.

Try our blackberry recipes

If you want to grow your own blackberry patch – use a quality company such as Burpee

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